A guide to „technical speak“. When you click on a term, an explanation will appear.
AlphaScreen® relies on hydrogel coated Donor and Acceptor beads providing functional groups for conjugation to biomolecules.
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AquaSpark™ is a new generation of strongly chemiluminescent probes, based on dioxetane derivatives, that exhibit enhanced properties over traditional chemiluminescent dioxetanes.
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is present in all living cells. It is also referred to as the “energy currency”. Because the level is strictly-controlled, ATP determination can be used as a indicator of viable cell numbers.
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BRET is based on the fact that the energy derived from a luciferase reaction can be used to excite a fluorescent protein if the latter is in close proximity to the luciferase enzyme.
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Intracellular Calcium have become important indicators for the activation state of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors as well as for the phases of apoptosis and cell injury.
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The CALUX® (Chemical Activated Luciferase gene eXpression) Assays from BioDetection Systems can be used to detect certain chemicals like dioxins, dioxin-like PCB's or (anti)estrogens and (anti)androgen compounds.
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Monitoring the activity of Caspases – a group of cystein-aspartic acid peptidases – is a key method in apoptosis research. The assays are designed around specific peptide substrates for Caspase 3, 7, 8 and 9 respectively which will be cleaved when Caspases are present indicating cells are in an apoptotic state.
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Cellular chemiluminescence (CL), is the production of light occuring upon chemical reaction of activated cells like neutrophil granulocytes, monocytes or macrophages when phagocytosis as the first immune response is activated in order to protect the organism from invaders.
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Traditionally DNA concentration has been determined by measuring absorbance of the sample at 260nm, but there are a variety of different DNA and RNA quantification kits available.
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Plate coating, in the Life Sciences environment, relates to microplates, mostly 96-well, most usually as full-plate or 8-well strip plates. Coating means the immobilization of antigen, antibodies or any other compound on the well surface, for the purpose of a binding assay. The „coated plate“ is part of a commercial ELISA kit, or of a home-brew (self-made) ELISA assay.
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Fluorescence polarisation (FP) is ideal to measure the binding of a small molecule to a much larger one.
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FRET is based on the fact, that a donor dye in an excited state can transfer a part of its energy to an acceptor molecule like YFP. The emission from the acceptor can be detected as soon as both dyes are in close proximity when e.g. interaction of two proteins has taken place.
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HTRF® (Homogenous Time-Resolved Fluorescence) is a Time-Resolved FRET technology that combines time-resolved methodologies with classical FRET to create assays of high robustness and sensitivity.
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ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is present in all living cells and is therefore an indicator of biological contamination of e.g. human or bacterial origin. ATP can be detected rapidly by light emission through the combined use of the enzyme luciferase and a luminometer. The measured light is proportional to the ATP level.
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Immunoassays combine the principles of chemistry and immunology enabling scientific tests, e.g. enzyme immunoassays and immunoblotting for a specific and sensitive detection of the analytes of interest. The basic princple of these assays is the specificity of the antibody-antigen reaction.
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Kinases are modifying the activity of specific proteins and are extensively used to transmit signals and control complex processes in cells. Their enormous diversity and their role in signal transduction make them attractive targets for research and drug design.
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Measurement of protein concentration in solution has since long been of essential importance in biological laboratories. The most commonly used ways to determine protein concentrations are the Bradford, Lowry and BCA methods.
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The purpose of the reporter gene assay is to measure the regulatory potential of an unknown DNA-sequence. This can be done by linking a promoter sequence to an easily detectable reporter gene such as that encoding for the firefly luciferase.
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SPARCL (Spatial Proximity Analyte Reagent Capture Luminescence) is a proximity-dependent chemiluminescent technology for the detection of specific binding interaction or association between two binding partners.
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TRF implies the use of fluorophores with a distinctive fluorescence lifetime to avoid the interference caused by molecules with a very different fluorescence lifetime or other factors (most importantly, excitation light).
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Time-Resolved FRET combines time-resolved methodologies with classical FRET to create assays of high robustness and sensitivity.
More about TR-FRET
The use of intact luminous photobacteria (Vibrio fischeri or Photobacteria leiognathi) or dinoflagellates for toxicity assessment has some clear advantages that have been scientifically validated. These protozoas are self-maintained luminescent units that, under proper conditions, emit high and steady levels of luminescence.
More about Water toxicity
AlphaScreen® is a registered trademark of PerkinElmer.
AquaSpark™ is a trademark of Ramot at Tel Aviv University.
HTRF® is a registered trademark of Cisbio Bioassays.