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Glossary

Glossary

A guide to „technical speak“. When you click on a term, an explanation will appear.

AlphaScreen®

AlphaScreen® relies on hydrogel coated Donor and Acceptor beads providing functional groups for conjugation to biomolecules.
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ATP measurements

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is present in all living cells. It is also referred to as the “energy currency”. Because the level is strictly-controlled, ATP determination can be used as a indicator of viable cell numbers.
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BRET – Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

BRET is based on the fact that the energy derived from a luciferase reaction can be used to excite a fluorescent protein if the latter is in close proximity to the luciferase enzyme.
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Calcium monitoring

Intracellular Calcium have become important indicators for the activation state of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors as well as for the phases of apoptosis and cell injury.
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CALUX Assays

The CALUX® (Chemical Activated Luciferase gene eXpression) Assays from BioDetection Systems can be used to detect certain chemicals like dioxins, dioxin-like PCB's or (anti)estrogens and (anti)androgen compounds.
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Caspase Assays

Monitoring the activity of Caspases – a group of cystein-aspartic acid peptidases – is a key method in apoptosis research. The assays are designed around specific peptide substrates for Caspase 3, 7, 8 and 9 respectively which will be cleaved when Caspases are present indicating cells are in an apoptotic state.
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Cellular luminescence (Reactive Oxygen Species)

Cellular chemiluminescence (CL), is the production of light occuring upon chemical reaction of activated cells like neutrophil granulocytes, monocytes or macrophages when phagocytosis as the first immune response is activated in order to protect the organism from invaders.
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DNA quantification

Traditionally DNA concentration has been determined by measuring absorbance of the sample at 260nm, but there are a variety of different DNA and RNA quantification kits available.
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Fluorescence polarisation (FP)

Fluorescence polarisation (FP) is ideal to measure the binding of a small molecule to a much larger one.
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FRET- Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

FRET is based on the fact, that a donor dye in an excited state can transfer a part of its energy to an acceptor molecule like YFP. The emission from the acceptor can be detected as soon as both dyes are in close proximity when e.g. interaction of two proteins has taken place.
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Hygiene monitoring

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is present in all living cells and is therefore an indicator of biological contamination of e.g. human or bacterial origin. ATP can be detected rapidly by light emission through the combined use of the enzyme luciferase and a luminometer. The measured light is proportional to the ATP level.
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Immunoassays

Immunoassays combine the principles of chemistry and immunology enabling scientific tests, e.g. enzyme immunoassays and immunoblotting for a specific and sensitive detection of the analytes of interest. The basic princple of these assays is the specificity of the antibody-antigen reaction.
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Kinase assays

Kinases are modifying the activity of specific proteins and are extensively used to transmit signals and control complex processes in cells. Their enormous diversity and their role in signal transduction make them attractive targets for research and drug design.
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Protein concentration

Measurement of protein concentration in solution has since long been of essential importance in biological laboratories. The most commonly used ways to determine protein concentrations are the Bradford, Lowry and BCA methods.
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Reporter gene assays

The purpose of the reporter gene assay is to measure the regulatory potential of an unknown DNA-sequence. This can be done by linking a promoter sequence to an easily detectable reporter gene such as that encoding for the firefly luciferase.
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Water toxicity

The use of intact luminous photobacteria (Vibrio fischeri or Photobacteria leiognathi) or dinoflagellates for toxicity assessment has some clear advantages that have been scientifically validated. These protozoas are self-maintained luminescent units that, under proper conditions, emit high and steady levels of luminescence.
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